Below are substantial list of scientific journal articles, manuals, and other reference material published both about Marxan and about how people have used Marxan.  Wherever possible, a link to the original work, either via .pdf or online, has been provided. If you are unable to access one of these publications, please emal the This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

If you would like to have your publication added to this list, please email the citation and an online link to the This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


In return for the free provision of Marxan, Marxan with Zones and Zonae Cogito, if you write about any of these three products, use them, or give a talk about them, please any or all of the three references below, along with any other relevant papers below.  Access is provided wherever possible to online or .pdf versions of all these references. 

For Marxan

Ball IR, HP Possingham and M Watts (2009) Marxan and relatives: Software for spatial conservation prioritisation. Chapter 14: Pages 185-195 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen A, KA Wilson and HP Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

For Marxan with Zones

Watts ME, IR Ball, RR Stewart, CJ Klein, K Wilson, C Steinback, R Lourival, L Kircher, and HP Possingham (2009) Marxan with Zones: software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoning, Environmental Modelling & Software (2009), doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.06.005     Electronic Preprint pdf (367KB)  - Final Published Version - This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

For Zonae Cogito

Segan DB, ET Game, ME Watts, RR Stewart and HP Possingham (2011) An interoperable decision support tool for conservation planning. Environmental Modelling & Software, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.08.002


Agostini VN, SW Margles, SR Schill, JE Knowles and RJ Blyther (2010). Marine Zoning in Saint Kitts and Nevis: A Path Towards Sustainable Management of Marine Resources, The Nature Conservancy. Report.

Airamé S, JE Dugan, KD Lafferty, H Leslie, DA McArdle, and RR Warner (2003) Applying Ecological Criteria to Marine Reserve Design: A Case Study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13:170-184

Alonso D, C Segura-Quintero, PY Castillo-Torres and J Gerhantz-Muro (2008) Avances en el diseño de una red de áreas marinas protegidas: Estrategia de conservación para el norte del Caribe continental colombiano. Santa Marta, Colombia. Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. 37:1 129-156p.

Ceauşu S, I Gomes and HM Pereira (2015) Conservation Planning for Biodiversity and Wilderness: A Real-World Example. Environmental Management 55: 1168-1180.

Klein C, C Steinback, M Watts, A Scholz and HP Possingham (2009) Spatial marine zoning for fisheries and conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8:7 349:353

Levin N, JEM Watson, LN Joseph, HS Grantham, L Hadar, N Apel, A Perevolotsky, N DeMalach, HP Possingham and S Kark (2013) A framework for systematic conservation planning and management of Mediterranean landscapes. Biological Conservation, 158: 371-383

Lourival R, M Watts, R Pressey, G Mourão, C Padovani, M Silva and HP Possingham (2011) What is Missing in Biosphere Reserves Accountability? Natureza & Conservação 9:2 160-178

Mazor T, HP Possingham, D Edelist, E Brokovich and S Kark (2014) The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities. PLoS ONE 9(8): e104489

Watts ME, C Steinback and C Klein (2008) Applying Marxan with Zones to North central coast of California. User Guide

Watts ME, CK Klein, RR Stewart, IR Ball and HP Possingham (2008) Marxan with Zones (V1.0.1): Conservation Zoning using Spatially Explicit Annealing. A Manual.

Wilson KA, E Meijaard, S Drummond, HS Grantham, L Boitani, G Catullo, L Christie, R Dennis, I Dutton, A Falcucci, L Maiorano, HP Possingham, C Rondinini, WR Turner, O Venter and M Watts (2009) Conserving biodiversity in production landscapes, Ecological Applications 20:6 1721-1732


Ball IR (2000) Mathematical applications for conservation ecology: the dynamics of tree hollows and the design of nature reserves. PhD Thesis, The University of Adelaide

Ball IR and HP Possingham (2000) MARXAN (V1.8.2): Marine Reserve Design Using Spatially Explicit Annealing. A Manual

Ban N (2009) Minimum data requirements for designing a set of marine protected areas, using commonly available abiotic and biotic datasets. Biodiversity & Conservation 18:7 1829-1845

Ban NC and ACJ Vincent (2009) Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the approach of selecting areas where fishing is permitted, rather than prohibited. PLos One 4, e6258.

Ban NC and CJ Klein (2009) Spatial socioeconomic data as a cost in systematic marine conservation planning. Conservation Letters 2:5 206-215

Ban NC, CR Picard and ACJ Vincent (2009) Comparing and integrating community-based and science-based approaches in prioritizing marine areas for protection. Conservation Biology 23:4 899-910

Ban NC, GJA Hanson, M Jones and ACJ Vincent (2009) Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: Socioeconomic data is essential. Marine Policy 33:5 794-800

Beck MW and M Odaya (2001) Ecoregional planning in marine environments: Identifying priority sites for conservation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Conservation 11:4 235-242

Becker CG, RD Loyola, CFB Haddad and KR Zamudio (2009) Integrating species life-history traits and patterns of deforestation in amphibian conservation planning, Diversity and Distributions 16:1 10-19

Beger M, S Linke  M Watts, E Game  E Treml, I Ball and HP Possingham(2010) Incorporating asymmetric connectivity into spatial decision making for conservation. Conservation Letters 3:5 359-368

Cameron SE, KJ Williams and DK Mitchell (2008) Efficiency and Concordance of Alternative Methods for Minimizing Opportunity Costs in Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology 22:4 886-896

Carvalho SB, JC Brito, EG Crespo, ME Watts and HP Possingham (2011) Conservation planning under climate change: Toward accounting for uncertainty in predicted species distributions to increase confidence in conservation investments in space and time. Biological Conservation 144:7 2020-2030 

Carwardine J, KA Wilson, M Watts, A Etter, CJ Klein, HP Possingham et al. (2008) Avoiding Costly Conservation Mistakes: The Importance of Defining Actions and Costs in Spatial Priority Setting. PLOS One 3(7) e2586

Carwardine J, KA Wilson, SA Hajkowicz, RJ Smith, CJ Klein, MA Watts and HP Possingham (2010) Conservation Planning when Costs Are Uncertain. Conservation Biology 24:6 1529-1537

Carwardine J, WA Rochester, KS Richardson, KJ Williams, RL Pressey and HP Possingham (2007) Conservation planning with irreplaceability: does the method matter? Biodiversity and Conservation 16:1 245-258 

Ceballos G, PR Ehrlich, J Soberon, I Salazar and JP Fay (2005) Global Mammal Conservation: What Must We Manage? Science 309:5734 603-607

Chan KMA, MR Shaw, DR Cameron, EC Underwood and GC Daily (2006) Conservation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biol 4:e379

Check HE (2008) Wildlife Conservation 2.0 - A new software-based approach may be the key to saving thousands of species. Discover magazine online. 12.05.2008

Cook R and P Auster (2006) Developing alternatives for optimal representation of seafloor habitats and associated communities in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-06-02. 24 pp pdf

Cook RR and PJ Auster (2005) Use of simulated annealing for identifying essential fish habitat in a multispecies context. Conservation Biology 19:3 876-886

Drummond SP, KA Wilson, E Meijaard, M Watts, R Dennis, L Christy and HP Possingham (2010) Influence of a Threatened-Species Focus on Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology 24,2:441-449

Edwards HJ, IA Elliot, RL Pressey and PJ Mumby (2010) Incorporating ontogenic dispersal, ecological processes and conservation zoning into reserve design. Biological Conservation 143:2, 457-470

Ferdaña Z (2005) Nearshore marine conservation planning in the PacificNorthwest: Exploring the use of a siting algorithm for representing marine biodiversity, in Wright, D.J. and Scholz, A.J. (eds.), Place Matters: Geospatial Tools, for Marine Science, Conservation, and Management in the Pacific Northwest, Corvallis, OR: OSU Press

Fischer DT and RL Church (2005) The SITES reserve selection system: A critical review. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10:3 215-228

Fraschetti S, P D'Ambrosio, F Micheli, F Pizzolante, S Bussotti and A Terlizzi (2009) Design of marine protected areas in a human dominated seascape. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 375: 13-24

Game ET, G Lipsett-Moore, R Hamilton, N Peterson, J Kereseka, W Atu, M Watts and HP Possingham (2010) Informed opportunism for conservation planning in the Solomon Islands. Conservation Letters 4:1 38-46

Game ET, ME Watts, S Wooldridge and HP Possingham (2008) Planning for Persistence in Marine Reserves: A Question of Catastrophic Importance. Ecological Applications: 18:3 670-680

Gonzales EK, P Arcese, R Schulz and FL Bunnell (2003) Strategic reserve design in the central coast of British Columbia: integrating ecological and industrial goals. Canadian Journal for Restoration 33: 2129-2140

Grand J, MP Cummings, AG Rebelo, TH Ricketts and MC Neel (2007) Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecology Letters 10:5 364-374

Green A, SE Smith, G Lipsett-Moore, C Groves, N Peterson, S Sheppard, P Lokani, R Hamilton, J Almany, J Aitsi, and L Bualia (2009) Designing a resilient network of marine protected areas for Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea Oryx 43:4 488-498

Guerrero A, A Knight, H Grantham, R Cowling and KA Wilson (2010) Predicting willingness-to-sell and its utility for assessing conservation opportunity for expanding protected area networks Conservation Letters 3:5 332-339

Gutierrez-Moreno C and DACyC Segura-Quintero (2008) Diseño de un área marina protegida para bahía Portete – La Guajira, Caribe colombiano. Santa Marta, Colombia.Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras. 37:2 189-212p

Heiner M, G Davaa, J Kiesecker, B McKenney, J Evans, T Enkhtsetseg, Z Dash, U Vanchindorj, O Baast, S Dolgorjav, G Radnaabazar, E Donchinbuu, O Lhamjav, S Gongor, E Girvetz and R McDonald (2011) Identifying Conservation Priorities in the Face of Future Development: Applying Development by Design in the Grasslands of Mongolia. A report by The Nature Conservancy

Holmes P, A Stipinovich and A Purves (2012) City of Cape Town’s Biodiversity Network - C-Plan and MARXAN analysis: 2011 Methods and Results Report. Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), City of Cape Town.

Jenkins CN and C Giri (2008) Protection of Mammal Diversity in Central America. Conservation Biology 22:4 1037-1044

Jenkins CN, AS Alves and SL Pimm (2010) Avian conservation priorities in a top-ranked biodiversity hotspot. Biological Conservation 143:4 992-998

Kaim A (2015) Conservation Prioritization Problems and their Shadow Prices: A thesis presented for the degree of Diplom Wirtschaftsmathematikerin. Leipzig University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Institute of Mathematics.

Katsanevakis S, N Levin, M Coll, S Giakoumi, D Shkedi, P Mackelworth, R Levy, A Velegrakis, D Koutsoubas, H Caric, E Brokovich, B Ozturk and S Kark (2015) Marine conservation challenges in an era of economic crisis and geopolitical instability: The case of the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Policy 51: 31–39

Klein CJ, KA Wilson, M Watts, J Stein, J Carwardine, B Mackey and HP Possingham (2009) Spatial conservation prioritization inclusive of wilderness quality: A case study of Australia's biodiversity. Biological Conservation 142(7):1282-1290

Klein C, C Steinback, A Scholz and HP Possingham (2008) Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California. Conservation Letters 1:1 44-51

Klein C, KA Wilson, M Watts, J Stein, S Berry, J Carwardine, DM Stafford Smith, B Mackey and HP Possingham (2008). Incorporating ecological and evolutionary processes into continental-scale conservation planning. Ecological Applications 19:1 206-217

Klein CJ, A Chan, L Kircher, AJ Cundiff, N Gardner, Y Hrovat, A Scholz, BE Kendall and S Airame (2008) Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 22:3 691-700

Knight AT, RM Cowling, KA Wilson and HP Possingham (2009) From theory to practice: Designing and situating spatial prioritization approaches to better implement conservation action. Chapter 18: Pages 249-259 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen A, KA Wilson and HP Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Leroux SJ, FKA Schmiegelow, SG Cumming, RB Lessard & J Nagy (2007) Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design. Ecological Applications 17:7 1954-1966

Leroux SJ, FKA Schmiegelow and J Nagy (2007) Potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada. Conservation Biology 21:376-386

Leslie H, R Ruckelshaus, IR Ball, S Andelman and HP Possingham (2003) Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13: S185-S198

Leslie HM (2005) A Synthesis of Marine Conservation Planning Approaches. Conservation Biology 19:6 1701-1713

Levin N, T Mazor, E Brokovich, PE Jablon and S Kark. (2015) Sensitivity analysis of conservation targets in systematic conservation planning. Ecological Applications 25:7 1997-2010

Linke S, M Watts and HP Possingham (2007) Muddy waters: Modifying reserve design algorithms for riverine landscapes. Proceedings of the International Congress on Modelling and Simulation Land, Water & Environmental Management, 2007 Volume 17 Pages 2216-2222

Linke S, M Watts, R Stewart and HP Possingham (2010) Using multivariate analysis to deliver conservation planning products that align with practitioner needs. Ecography 33. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06351.x

Lourival R, M Drechsler, ME Watts, ET Game and HP Possingham (2010) Planning for reserve Adequacy in dynamic landscapes; maximizing future representation of vegetation communities under flood disturbance in the Pantanal wetland. Diversity and Distributions 17:2 297-310

Lourival R, H McCallum, G Grigg, C Arcangelo, R Machado and HP Possingham (2009) A systematic evaluation of the conservation plans for the Pantanal wetland in Brazil. Wetlands, 29, 4, 1189–1201

Mazor T, S Giakoumi, S Kark and HP Possingham (2014) Large-scale conservation planning in a multinational marine environment: cost matters. Ecological Applications 24:1115–1130.

McDonnell MD, HP Possingham, IR Ball and EA Cousins (2002) Mathematical methods for spatially cohesive reserve design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 7: 107-114.

Moilanen A, HP Possingham and KA Wilson (2009) Spatial conservation prioritization: past, present and future. Chapter 19: Pages 260-268 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen A, KA Wilson and HP Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Moilanen A, HP Possingham and S Polasky (2009) A mathematical classification of conservation prioritization problems. Chapter 3: Pages 28-42 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. Eds Moilanen A, KA Wilson and HP Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Nackoney J and D Williams (2013) A comparison of scenarios for rural development planning and conservation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Biological Conservation 164: 140-149.

Neely AE and RN Zajac (2008) Applying marine protected area design models in large estuarine systems. Marine Ecology Progress Series: 373: 11-23.

Oetting JB, AL Knight and GR Knight (2006) Systematic reserve design as a dynamic process: F-TRAC and the Florida Forever program. Biological Conservation 128: 37-46.

Pearce JL, DA Kirk, CP Lane, MH Mahr, J Walmsley, D Casey, JE Muir, S Hannon, A Hansen and K Jones (2007) Prioritizing avian conservation areas for the Yellowstone to Yukon Region of North America. Biological Conservation 141:908-924.

Possingham HP, IR Ball and S Andelman (2000) Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In: Ferson S and M Burgman (eds) Quantitative methods for conservation biology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 291-305. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Possingham HP, JR Day, M Goldfinch and F Salzborn (1993) The mathematics of designing a network of protected areas for conservation. In: DJ Sutton, CEM Pearce and EA Cousins (eds) Decision Sciences: Tools for Today. Proceedings of 12th National ASOR Conference. ASOR, Adelaide, pp. 536-545. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Possingham HP, A Moilanen and KA Wilson (2009) Accounting for habitat dynamics in conservation planning. Chapter 10: Pages 135-144 in Spatial conservation prioritisation: Quantitative methods and computational tools. (Eds) Moilanen A, KA Wilson and HP Possingham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Powers RP, NC Coops, TA Nelson, MA Wulder and CR Drever (2013) Integrating accessibility and intactness into large-area conservation planning in the Canadian boreal forest. Biological Conservation. Vol. 167, pp. 371-379.

Pressey RL, M Cabeza, ME Watts, RM Cowling and KA Wilson (2007) Conservation planning in a changing world. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:583-592

Richardson EA, MJ Kaiser, G Edwards-Jones and HP Possingham (2006) Sensitivity of marine-reserve design to the spatial resolution of socioeconomic data. Conservation Biology 20:1191-1201

Rondinini C and L Boitani (2007) Systematic Conservation Planning and the Cost of Tackling Conservation Conflicts with Large Carnivores in Italy. Conservation Biology 21:1455-1462.

Rondinini C, F Chiozza and L Boitani (2006) High human density in the irreplaceable sites for African vertebrates conservation. Biological Conservation 133:358-363.

Sala E, O Aburto-Oropeza, G Paredes, I Parra, JC Barrera and PK Dayton (2002) A General Model for Designing Networks of Marine Reserves. Science 298:5600 1991-1993. DOI: 10.1126/science.1075284

Salt D (2010) The Marxan Special IssueDecision Point. A monthly magazine published by the Environmental Decisions Group, University of Queensland. Online

Shriner SA, KR Wilson and CH Flather (2006) Reserve networks based on richness hotspots and representation vary with scale. Ecological Applications 16:1660-1673.

Smith RJ, J Easton, BA Nhancale, AJ Armstrong, J Culverwell, SD Dlamini, PS Goodman, L Loffler, WS Matthews, A Monadjem, CM Mulqueeny, P Ngwenya, CP Ntumi, B Soto and N Leader-Williams (2008) Designing a transfrontier conservation landscape for the Maputaland centre of endemism using biodiversity, economic and threat data. Biological Conservation 141:2127-2138.

Smith RJ, PS Goodman and WS Matthews (2007) Systematic conservation planning: a review of perceived limitations and an illustration of the benefits, using a case study from Maputaland, South Africa. Oryx 40:400-410.

Smith RJ, PD Eastwood, Y Ota and SI Rogers (2009) Developing best practice for using Marxan to locate Marine Protected Areas in European waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66, 188-194.

Stewart RR, I Ball and HP Possingham (2007) The Effect of Incremental Reserve Design and Changing Reservation Goals on the Long-Term Efficiency of Reserve Systems. Conservation Biology 21:346-354.

Stewart RR, T Noyce and HP Possingham (2003a) The opportunity cost of ad-hoc marine reserve design decisions - An example from South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 25-38.

Stewart RR and HP Possingham (2003) A framework for systematic marine reserve design in South Australia: A case study. Proceedings of the Inaugural World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas, Cairns - August 2002. pdf (1.07MB)

Stewart RR and HP Possingham (2005) Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 10:3 203-213

Stoms DM, FW Davis, MW Jenner, TM Nogeire and SR Kaffka (2011) Modeling wildlife and other trade-offs with biofuel crop production. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 4(3): 330-341.

Tallis H, Z Ferdana and E Gray (2008) Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis. Conservation Biology 22:120-130

Visconti P and L Joppa (2015) Building robust conservation plans. Conservation Biology 00:1-10.

Visconti P, RL Pressey, DB Segan and BA Wintle (2010). Conservation planning with dynamic threats: The role of spatial design and priority setting for species' persistence. Biological Conservation 143(3):756-767

Ward TJ, MA Vanderklift, AO Nicholls and RA Kenchington (1999) Selecting Marine Reserves Using Habitats and Species Assemblages as Surrogates for Biological Diversity. Ecological Applications 9:691-698.